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Diabetes mellitus (simply called Diabetes) is a metabolic disease where the blood sugar levels are higher than the normal range. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat because you can’t make insulin or because you can’t use it correctly, resulting in high blood glucose levels (Hyperglycemia) that can lead to health Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.

Type FPG (mg/d L) PPG(mg/d L) A1c (%)
Normal < 100 < 140 5.7
Prediabetes > 100 – < 126 > 140 – < 200 > 5.7 – < 6.5
Diabetes > 126 > 200 > 6.5

To check your blood glucose a doctor may ask you to do various tests like fasting plasma glucose (FPG) should be done when you are fasting more than 8 hours and FPG less than 110 mg/dL will be considered as normal; a fasting blood sugar ranges between 100 to 125 mg/dL is considered as prediabetes or borderline to develop diabetes and is your FPG range is above 126 mg/dL then you will be considered as diabetic.

Your doctor may ask you to one more test called postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) this test should be done 2 hours after the meal and if your blood glucose will more than 200 mg/dL then you are considered as diabetic.

Also, your doctor may deploy a sensor of Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) for 6- 14 days. The CGMS is modern technology for diabetes monitoring in this technique CGM works through a tiny sensor inserted under your skin, usually on your belly or arm. The sensor measures your interstitial glucose level, which is the glucose found in the fluid between the cells the sensor will be applied on your body (five fingers away from your belly button or back side of your shoulder). This sensor will record your blood glucose every 5 minutes interval and record 288 blood glucose reading per day. After 6-14 days the sensor will be removed and the report will be generated and accordingly, the doctor will prescribe you lifestyle modification or medications.

The amount of glucose in your bloodstream is tightly regulated by the hormone insulin. Insulin is always being released in small amounts by the pancreas. When the amount of glucose in your blood rises to a certain level, the pancreas will release more insulin to push more glucose into the cells. This causes the glucose levels in your blood to drop. Insulin also helps to store glucose in fat cells (Adipose tissue) and liver (for further use when you are not eating) and it increases the usage of glucose from your peripheral muscles.

Diabetes is caused if your body cannot produce insulin or your body cannot utilize insulin properly (Insulin resistance).

Type of diabetes

Gestational diabetes: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy

Diabetes Complications

High blood glucose for a prolonged period may damage your micro-blood vessels of the eye (retinopathy), kidney (nephropathy), and nerves (neuropathy) and macro-blood vessels of the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (stroke) and lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease).

Prevention and management

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, eating healthy and engaging in regular, moderate physical activity may reduce the progression of Type 2 diabetes. The key to eating with diabetes is to eat a variety of healthy foods from all food groups, in the amounts your meal plan outlines.

The food groups are

    • Vegetables
      • nonstarchy: includes broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes
      • starchy: includes potatoes, corn, and green peas
    • Fruits—includes oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes
    • Grains—at least half of your grains for the day should be whole grains
      • includes wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and quinoa
      • examples: bread, pasta, cereal, and tortilla
  • Protein
    • lean meat
    • chicken or turkey without the skin
    • fish
    • eggs
    • nuts and peanuts
    • dried beans and certain peas, such as chickpeas and split peas
    • meat substitutes, such as tofu
  • Dairy—nonfat or low fat
    • milk or lactose-free milk if you have lactose intolerance
    • yogurt
    • cheese
You should follow advice
  • Eat Regular meal


  •  Eat a variety of foods


  • Eat less salt
  • Eat less fat


  • Eat less sugar


  • Avoid or consume less alcohol
  • Eat fruits having a low glycemic index


  • Eat food having low glycemic index


  • Quiet smoking


When you have type 2 diabetes, physical activity is an important component of your treatment plan.  It’s also important to have a healthy meal plan and maintain your blood glucose level through medications or insulin, if necessary.

If you stay fit and active throughout your life, you’ll be able to better control your diabetes and keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. Controlling your blood glucose level is essential to preventing long-term complications, such as nerve pain and kidney disease.

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